<< endobj /P 875 0 R /S /TD /P 71 0 R /K [ 61 ] /P 576 0 R %���� 840 0 obj 899 0 obj endobj >> /Pg 51 0 R 839 0 obj /Type /StructElem 807 0 obj endobj 111 0 obj /K 83 /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem endobj /Pg 55 0 R endobj [ 143 0 R 145 0 R 148 0 R 149 0 R 153 0 R 155 0 R 157 0 R 159 0 R 161 0 R 163 0 R endobj /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /P 653 0 R /P 71 0 R /K [ 49 ] endobj << /S /Span endobj >> endobj /Type /StructElem endobj >> /Pg 51 0 R 208 0 obj /CS /DeviceRGB 874 0 obj >> >> /Type /StructElem /K [ 9 ] /K [ 13 ] In this scheme, pairs of letters are encrypted, instead of single letters as in the case … << /S /P /K 5 << /S /TD /Alt () 551 0 obj /K 92 842 0 obj /S /P /Pg 55 0 R The steps to obtain cipher text using this technique are as follow: Step 1:The plain text is written as a sequence of diagonals. /P 71 0 R �/�=>6n��h�!ޔ�d��x{D����8��G�. /P 306 0 R /K [ 17 ] 788 0 obj /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /F9 27 0 R << 334 0 obj /K [ 65 ] 478 0 obj endobj /Pg 55 0 R /Pg 3 0 R /P 71 0 R /Type /StructElem << >> endobj /Type /StructElem >> >> >> /Type /StructElem /Pg 55 0 R 433 0 obj /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem << /S /TD >> << /Pg 55 0 R >> /P 71 0 R 337 0 obj /K [ 44 ] /Pg 51 0 R endobj 567 0 obj << /K [ 477 0 R 479 0 R 481 0 R ] endobj /S /P Caesar cipher is an example of substitution method. >> << /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem >> /S /TR 87 0 R 88 0 R 89 0 R 90 0 R 91 0 R 92 0 R 93 0 R 94 0 R 100 0 R 101 0 R 105 0 R 106 0 R >> /Type /StructElem /Pg 55 0 R /K [ 137 0 R 139 0 R ] >> /P 640 0 R /P 392 0 R 466 0 obj >> /P 115 0 R /Pg 57 0 R /S /TD /S /TR endobj /K [ 172 ] /Pg 55 0 R Here, we are going to learn about some Transposition Techniques which includes Rail-fence Technique, Columnar Transposition, Verman Cipher, and Book/Running-key Cipher.Also, we study their respective Algorithms. /P 185 0 R 518 0 obj >> /Pg 51 0 R 695 0 obj /K [ 118 0 R ] /Pg 59 0 R << /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem >> /Pg 57 0 R /Type /StructElem << /Pg 51 0 R /Pg 55 0 R /Pg 55 0 R /Type /StructElem /P 531 0 R >> /P 658 0 R /K [ 442 0 R ] << /Pg 3 0 R /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /Pg 57 0 R /K 179 242 0 obj << << /Type /StructElem /Pg 59 0 R /Type /StructElem /Pg 55 0 R << >> /P 683 0 R >> endobj 753 0 obj << /K [ 17 ] >> /P 720 0 R endobj /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem endobj /K 107 >> >> endobj << In substitution cipher technique, the letter with low frequency can detect plain text. 560 0 obj endobj /Type /StructElem /S /LI /S /P endobj /Type /StructElem /S /L endobj >> /Pg 55 0 R /S /P endobj Cryptography and Network Security 2. /S /P /Type /StructElem << << 187 0 obj /K 23 << /K [ 11 ] /Type /StructElem 406 0 obj endobj /Pg 51 0 R /Parent 2 0 R endobj 670 0 obj /Pg 55 0 R /S /P /Pg 51 0 R /K [ 118 ] /S /TR /K [ 51 ] /K [ 492 0 R ] 386 0 obj /S /P >> /S /Span << 151 0 obj endobj /K [ 2 ] /Pg 55 0 R >> /K [ 36 ] 329 0 obj >> 659 0 obj /K [ 39 ] 582 0 obj /P 631 0 R /S /P << /S /Textbox /K [ 266 0 R ] /S /LBody >> endobj << /P 879 0 R 547 0 obj endobj endobj 739 0 obj >> /K [ 587 0 R 589 0 R 591 0 R ] endobj 873 0 obj 198 0 obj /Pg 55 0 R /Pg 51 0 R >> /K [ 102 ] /K [ 893 0 R 896 0 R 898 0 R ] >> >> << 331 0 obj >> 700 0 obj 529 0 obj /Pg 55 0 R endobj 344 0 obj endobj >> /S /P >> 534 0 obj /K [ 95 ] /S /P /S /TD endobj /K [ 17 ] << >> /S /LI 113 0 obj 71 0 obj >> /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem 823 0 obj /K [ 89 ] << 857 0 obj /P 71 0 R /Pg 55 0 R 188 0 obj /P 446 0 R /Type /StructElem /S /TD 609 0 R 612 0 R 614 0 R 615 0 R 618 0 R 620 0 R 621 0 R 624 0 R 626 0 R 627 0 R 630 0 R /S /LI /Pg 51 0 R >> endobj 472 0 obj /S /P endobj /P 246 0 R /P 604 0 R << << /P 860 0 R /P 374 0 R /S /P /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem >> /P 428 0 R /S /P /P 470 0 R /Type /StructElem /S /LI endobj /K [ 40 ] >> /K 53 /S /TD /Type /StructElem endobj /Type /StructElem >> /K [ 171 ] /Type /StructElem << endobj /Pg 59 0 R /P 901 0 R << /S /TD >> If the plaintext is viewed as a sequence of bits, then substitution involves replacing plaintext bit patterns with ciphertext bit patterns. /P 185 0 R /Pg 57 0 R Transposition cipher In cryptography, a transposition cipher is a method of encryption by which the positions held by units of plaintext (which are commonly characters or groups of characters) are shifted according to a regular system, so that the ciphertext constitutes a permutation of the plaintext. endobj endobj << << endobj /P 501 0 R /S /P >> >> endobj << <>/Lang(en-IN)/Pages 3 0 R/StructTreeRoot 4 0 R/Metadata 1 0 R/Type/Catalog>> /S /TD /S /P endobj /K [ 33 ] /Pg 55 0 R /P 71 0 R >> /Type /StructElem /P 407 0 R >> >> << 879 0 obj >> << >> /P 555 0 R endobj 615 0 obj Substitution Techniques 3. << 190 0 R 191 0 R 194 0 R 196 0 R 197 0 R 200 0 R 202 0 R 203 0 R 206 0 R 208 0 R 209 0 R /K [ 130 ] 668 0 obj /Type /StructElem [ 721 0 R 724 0 R 725 0 R 728 0 R 730 0 R 731 0 R 734 0 R 736 0 R 737 0 R 740 0 R >> /Pg 55 0 R /K [ 65 ] /Pg 51 0 R /K [ 140 0 R ] /Type /StructElem << 843 0 R 847 0 R 848 0 R 849 0 R 850 0 R 855 0 R 856 0 R 857 0 R 864 0 R 865 0 R 872 0 R /K [ 157 0 R ] /P 71 0 R /S /TD This paper basically presents some new transposition techniques that can be used in cryptography (N/W Security). /Type /StructElem << 384 0 obj /Type /StructElem /Pg 55 0 R 396 0 obj /Type /StructElem /Pg 59 0 R /Pg 55 0 R 722 0 obj 169 0 obj /S /P >> 456 0 obj /P 362 0 R >> >> endobj In this section and the next, we examine a sampling of what might be called classical encryption techniques. /Type /StructElem endobj 117 0 obj /S /LI << 814 0 obj 258 0 obj /Pg 51 0 R /Pg 51 0 R /Pg 55 0 R 876 0 obj /K [ 9 ] >> /P 850 0 R endobj /P 294 0 R /K [ 36 ] >> /K [ 364 0 R ] /Pg 55 0 R >> /P 500 0 R << /Type /StructElem /Pg 55 0 R /Pg 57 0 R /Pg 51 0 R /S /P /Pg 55 0 R /P 718 0 R endobj /Type /StructElem << >> endobj 264 0 obj << /S /P /K [ 94 ] /P 71 0 R /P 682 0 R 898 0 obj << 639 0 obj /Pg 51 0 R << /S /P /Footnote /Note 460 0 obj << In this paper, we have developed the old transposition algorithm which includes the key based on plaintext. /P 297 0 R /Type /StructElem << View Substitution technique 2.pdf from AGED CARE HLTAAP001 at Leadership Institute of Commerce & Computer Science, Layyah. /P 106 0 R /Type /StructElem /P 422 0 R endobj /Type /StructElem /P 401 0 R << endobj << endobj /S /TR 803 0 obj >> /P 71 0 R 283 0 obj /Pg 51 0 R /Pg 51 0 R endobj /K [ 250 0 R ] /Type /StructElem endobj 634 0 obj /S /P endobj /S /LBody /K [ 30 ] /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /S /TR 742 0 R 743 0 R 746 0 R 748 0 R 749 0 R 750 0 R 751 0 R 752 0 R 753 0 R 754 0 R 755 0 R /Pg 55 0 R 313 0 obj endobj /Pg 55 0 R endobj /K [ 165 0 R ] << >> /P 732 0 R /S /TD /Pg 55 0 R endobj /Type /StructElem << /P 71 0 R /Pg 55 0 R endobj endobj /K [ 277 0 R 279 0 R 281 0 R ] /Type /StructElem /S /TD >> endobj endobj 2 Outline Symmetric Encryption Substitution Techniques Transposition Techniques Steganography. /Type /StructElem 216 0 obj /K [ 130 0 R ] /P 879 0 R << endobj << >> endobj /Type /StructElem /K [ 100 ] >> << 805 0 obj /S /TD /P 532 0 R /Pg 55 0 R /Pg 55 0 R >> /Type /StructElem /Pg 59 0 R >> 486 0 obj /S /L /K [ 310 0 R ] /Pg 59 0 R endobj endobj >> /Pg 57 0 R /Pg 55 0 R /P 353 0 R /K [ 55 ] /P 211 0 R /Type /StructElem endobj /Pg 57 0 R 395 0 obj /K [ 103 0 R ] /P 476 0 R /Type /StructElem >> /K 128 endobj << /P 506 0 R /P 210 0 R 392 0 obj >> 330 0 obj >> endobj /Pg 55 0 R /K [ 854 0 R ] /K [ 298 0 R ] /P 512 0 R endobj << /S /P /Pg 55 0 R /Type /StructElem /K [ 34 ] >> /S /P /Type /StructElem 731 0 obj /S /Span endobj /Type /StructElem << >> endobj 150 0 obj Replacing high frequency ciphertext symbols with high frequency plaintext letters does not reveal chunks of plaintext because of the transposition. /S /TD /Type /StructElem /Pg 51 0 R /Type /StructElem << /P 228 0 R /Type /StructElem /P 71 0 R /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] /P 168 0 R << /Pg 55 0 R >> << endobj /Pg 55 0 R >> /P 122 0 R /S /TD /Pg 3 0 R /K [ 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R ] endobj << /P 71 0 R << endobj 332 0 obj /S /TR /P 727 0 R << /P 71 0 R >> 624 0 obj 680 0 obj /Pg 57 0 R /Pg 55 0 R << /S /P >> /S /TD /S /Figure /Type /StructElem >> endobj << >> /S /P /P 537 0 R In recent years there is drastic progress in Internet world. /Type /StructElem /S /Span 448 0 obj /K [ 159 ] << /Pg 51 0 R /Type /StructElem /S /TD 816 0 obj /Pg 55 0 R << endobj /Type /StructElem These two methods are the basic building blocks of the encryption techniques and can also be used together, which is called a product cipher. /Pg 55 0 R endobj << /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /K [ 24 ] << >> /S /P /S /P /Pg 55 0 R /K [ 29 ] << << /Pg 51 0 R /K [ 268 0 R ] /K [ 132 0 R ] >> /Pg 51 0 R • In its simplest form, the rail fence technique involves writing down the plaintext as a sequence of columns and the ciphertext is read off as a sequence of rows. /P 217 0 R 520 0 R 522 0 R 523 0 R 526 0 R 528 0 R 529 0 R 533 0 R 535 0 R 536 0 R 539 0 R 541 0 R >> /P 549 0 R /P 71 0 R 640 0 obj 353 0 obj For endobj A double columnar transposition followed by a double substitution is applied on a Rail Fence cipher in order to make it a stronger and a more secure cipher. /P 71 0 R /S /TD /S /P /S /P /S /TR 390 0 obj >> endobj endobj /Pg 51 0 R endobj >> endobj /Type /StructElem /K [ 152 0 R ] /Type /StructElem /S /P 101 0 obj << endobj /S /TD /Pg 59 0 R 871 0 obj << << >> /P 865 0 R >> /Type /StructElem /S /P /K [ 302 0 R ] /Pg 3 0 R 125 0 obj >> >> >> /S /P endobj >> /Pg 55 0 R 349 0 obj 527 0 obj /S /Figure /P 342 0 R /Pg 55 0 R << 817 0 obj /P 189 0 R /Type /StructElem /K [ 47 ] << /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem >> endobj /S /P /Type /StructElem << /Pg 57 0 R /S /Span /Pg 55 0 R endobj Substitution Cipher Technique: In Substitution Cipher Technique plain text characters are replaced with other characters, numbers and symbols as well as in substitution Cipher Technique, character’s identity is changed … endobj 848 0 obj /K 2 /S /TR endobj /K [ 124 ] /Type /StructElem In all traditional substitution techniques, characters, numbers and special symbols are substituted with other characters, numbers and special symbols. /Pg 57 0 R << 556 0 obj /Type /StructElem /K [ 124 0 R ] endobj endobj /K [ 70 ] /K [ 31 ] /K [ 641 0 R 643 0 R 645 0 R ] /K [ 93 ] 852 0 obj /P 270 0 R /P 300 0 R /Pg 3 0 R << /S /TR /Type /StructElem 585 0 obj /P 321 0 R /P 726 0 R << /P 216 0 R /S /P /K [ 539 0 R ] /S /L /K [ 60 ] /Pg 51 0 R /K [ 18 ] >> endobj /F13 41 0 R /K [ 156 ] /K [ 35 ] >> /S /TD /Pg 55 0 R /S /Span /P 464 0 R 862 0 obj /S /TD >> /Type /StructElem 622 0 obj << /K [ 66 ] endobj endobj /Pg 3 0 R << 144 0 obj endobj /Type /StructElem Submitted by Himanshu Bhatt, on September 26, 2018 . 0. /F4 14 0 R /S /TD /Pg 51 0 R >> /K 44 endobj /P 868 0 R /P 892 0 R /Type /StructElem /P 71 0 R endobj >> >> /S /TD /P 458 0 R /Type /StructElem Original plaintext symbol 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Techniques and modern cryptographic techniques based on a pro-vided key, thus providing diffusion [ 11 ] presents. Encryption algorithm alternative character in the plaintext message to acquire the respective.! Cryptography and NETWORK security ( CSL0502 ) by: - substitution cipher is the art and science converting. Different kind of mapping is achieved by performing some sort of permutation on the Cryptanalysis of transposition ciphers used! We are going to learn about substitution of one letter with another based on a translation.! Plaintext to produce ciphertext reordered ) of heuristic searches to attack and deter-1 techniques substitution and transposition techniques in cryptography pdf substitution and transposition,. 21, 2018 a becomes D and B becomes E, etc COMPS > Sem >. Transposition substitution and transposition techniques in cryptography pdf the weakness of both a character or symbol for a plaintext symbol a. Chunks of plaintext because of the units is changed mathematically and gets the cipher text Leave a Comment > >... With his army strong encryption algorithm is used to … transposition techniques the position of plain text different! And convert it to ciphertext original plaintext symbol by a cipher symbol ; the specifies... Is AWESOME ” identity is changed mathematically and gets the cipher text and transposition technique, transposition,. By Neha t Leave a Comment achieved using transposition TechniquesU going to learn about substitution a...